The application of bio-cellulose as a carrier of active substances
Radosław Drozd1 | Rafał Rakoczy2 | Karol Fijałkowski1 | Adam F. Junka3
2 Instytut Inżynierii Chemicznej i Procesów Ochrony Środowiska Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie
3 Zakład Mikrobiologii Farmaceutycznej i Parazytologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Piastów Śląskich we Wrocławiu
⇒ RADOSŁAW DROZD Katedra Immunologii, Mikrobiologii i Chemii Fizjologicznej, Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie, al. Piastów 45, 70-311 Szczecin, Tel.: +48 (91) 449 67 09
Forum Zakażeń 2016;7(5):381–383
ABSTRACT: Introduction The unique properties of bio-cellulose (BC) as biocompatibility, high hydrophilicity, strength, and susceptibility to various chemical modifications makes this natural polymer an attractive bio-carrier, which can be used in many industries and medicine. The source of this polymer can be plants or certain microorganisms. Nowadays, the object of many studies is cellulose produced by bacteria of the genus Gluconacetobacter, which like the plant, is made up of molecules of glucose, however, the polymer has better mechanical properties and is also characterized, inter alia, by higher water capacity. Production of this polymer with the use of the bacterial cultures does not require time-consuming and cost-intensive technology for purification and adjustment, which makes the production of bacterial cellulose is more environmentally friendly. For the preparation of the BC various technologies supporting the efficiency of the process as a rotating magnetic field or “air-lift” bioreactors, which significantly affect the end properties of the bio-cellulose at a molecular level as crystallinity or the ability to absorption of various kinds of active compounds were applied. Bacterial cellulose, due to its unique properties and, above all biocompatibility is used as an efficient carrier in the production of dressings saturated with agents that exhibit anti-microbial activity, for example colloidal silver, sorbic acid etc. BC in the form of patches may also be used as an efficient carrier in transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) for delivering drugs such as diclofenac, lidocaine or ibuprofen and in front of pharmaceuticals that are degraded in the gastrointestinal tract. The advantage of using bio-cellulose in TTS is the ease incorporation of active substances in the support structure and its relatively high retention and homogeneity. The susceptibility of this natural polymer to various chemical modifications also allows for the introduction into the structure number of other functional groups. These modifications ensure a durable bond the active substance to the structure of bio-cellulose, thereby facilitating their dosage, e.g., by simple changing the size and shape of the cellulose membrane. This makes it easier to monitor the contact time of the injury site with a drug used. In addition to low molecular weight substances, bio-cellulose is an excellent carrier for various kinds of biocatalysts such as enzymes. Papain and collagenase, are currently used in formulations for the treatment of non-healing wounds and ulcers. These enzymes can be potentially stable immobilized on BC thus giving the possibility of simple control over their activity without exposing the same to healthy tissue degradation. In addition to medical applications as a carrier BC was used as both the native and modified for the immobilization of enzymes essential for many industrial processes. Materials and methods The study was conducted using bacterial cellulose obtained from static, shaked and subjected to the influence of the rotating magnetic field, cultures of Gluconacetobacter. After purification the resulting BC was used in the native or modified form as a carrier for the immobilization of selected oxidoreductases and hydrolases. Results and Conclusions The obtained results indicated that depending on the type of BC used as carrier for the immobilization of enzymes, processing conditions and the type of the compound immobilized, the resulting systems may exhibit different properties. The immobilized enzymes showed comparable catalytic properties to its native forms, without any significant negative impact of immobilization on their structure. Summarizing, the results confirmed the high potential of bio-cellulose as a versatile carrier that could be used in a number of innovative solutions based on biocatalysts.